Our last report, “ICARUS Conclusions & Results” is now available on our website for download.

The document presents an overview of the methodology followed and the major results got by the project, as well as the conclusions and recommendations arising from our study.

ICARUS Conclusion & Results

Overview of the results

ICARUS has developed two completely new U-Space services and enhanced several other planned services. The new services are CARS and VALS.

The Common Altitude Reference Service (CARS) translates barometric and geometric altitudes, providing a Common Reference to all the users of airspace.

The Vertical Alert Service alerts manned and unmanned aircraft when the vertical distance from the ground (or obstacles on the ground) becomes too small.


ICARUS proposes several recommendations to enhance the future capabilities of U-space. Among them, we highlight the proposal to establish Common Altitude Reference Areas (CARA) in which the Common Altitude Reference service is available and is mandatory for all the users of an airspace.

Future work

ICARUS has proved that the concept of a Common Altitude Reference system that is adequate for both manned and unmanned aviation is sound and that it works. But additional research is required to advance beyond the prototype stage achieved by the project to complete the ICARUS concept.

To get the full report, please click on the download button below.

ICARUS Conclusion & Results